Besides no one separated them, there is no theoretical reason why not!

One of the first things we are thought about electricity is that it is the result of the existence of electric charges. But what about magnetism, why no one talks about the magnetic charges?

Magnetic dipole

We usually hear about bar magnets containing two poles. Their electrical analog is the so-called electric dipole, a “molecule” made of two closely spaced positive and negative charges. The electric dipole can easily be separated into its constituents.


Nobel prize to a wonder 2D material, discovered with a SCOTCH TAPE.

For a long time, scientists have been fantasizing about a perfect 2D material, the thinnest material possible, only one-atom-layer-thick. However, there was a lot of doubt whether perfect 2D crystals would be chemically stable to exist in nature. Most scientists believed that 2D materials could be produced only as an integral part of 3D structures, e.g. on a substrate. This changed with the discovery of a wonder material in 2004, and in the most spectacularly easy way.

2D material

Andre Konstantinovich Geim is a quirky scientist, the type that they could make a movie or a show after. He once co-authored an…


The Big Bang theory gives an answer.

Imagine you are in the middle of a forest. Whatever direction you look at, sooner or later your line of sight will be blocked by a tree. In the same way, looking at the night sky, the deeper you zoom in, the more distant stars will be revealed. If stars are spread more or less uniformly throughout the universe, and the universe is infinitely big and infinitely old, then in whichever direction you look, you should end up seeing a star. So the sky at night should be brightly lit and not dark as we know it.

Looking deeper, more distant stars will be revealed, filling the gaps between the closer stars. So, why is then the night sky dark and not bright?

This apparent paradox…


Three types of tasks in which Quantum Computers outperform the classical ones.

Easy problems for classical and quantum computers

The quantum computer isn’t just a next-generation computer with a faster processor and a bigger memory stick. A quantum computer is a different type of machine that operates conceptually differently, utilizing the interference properties of quantum states, such as quantum entanglement and quantum superposition.

It is important to know that quantum algorithms won’t be able to solve any problems that classical algorithms cannot already solve. However, quantum algorithms are attractive as they might be able to solve some problems faster than the classical ones, and in a few cases, even solve some problems faster than the classical computers can verify…


Nobel Prize winner, imprisoned for political activism, best known for his books covering the entirety of theoretical physics

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lev_Landau#/media/File:Landau.jpg

It’s not always possible to choose the best one in the field. However, in the 70-year period of the USSR, one physicist distinguished himself among all others based on his research, sharp intellect, and his contribution to physics in the Soviet Union and worldwide. Because of his ways of doing things and extremely low error rates, he is idolized among physics students, while due to his insightfulness, he is highly respected among scientists.

For most people who knew him, he was witty, ruthless, eccentric, and arrogant. Very few knew his gentle side. He had a very simple criterion for good…


Incomplete calculations or new unseen physics?

Last week was an exciting week in physics. Announced are the first results from the extremely precise almost 10-year long experiment on the elementary particle muon, a heavier version of the electron. The conclusions coming from the long-awaited data announced in the online press conference (video of the full conference) show that the muon is interacting differently from the prediction of the Standard Model of elementary particles. In the most exciting scenario, it might even talk to unseen particles, opening a potential window of a new physics.

Greek letter mu, a symbol denoting the muon.

How theoretically strong is the Standard Model? What does this discrepancy mean?

The Standard Model in physics is classifying all known elementary particles and describing…


Phenomena he was completely wrong about, some of them for life.

Albert Einstein

He solved big problems in atomic physics, which helped in the early development of quantum physics. He formulated a special theory of relativity known by the celebrated equation E = mc² and later developed a theory of General Relativity. With a deep intuition for the laws of nature, he shaped the physics of the 20th century, presenting his ideas with mathematical clarity that shows the beauty of physics.

Nevertheless, there were a few times when he was completely wrong and sometimes stayed so for decades. He was able to come up with big revolutionizing ideas and followed them through into…


Retraction of the controversial Nature paper no one talks about outside of the scientific community.

Full and data published in the prestigious journal Nature, claiming they reached a milestone in the research leading to a topological quantum computer

When there is a breakthrough in the development of quantum computers, it is made sure the news is covered in the media and presented to the public. This is how it was also with Microsoft in 2018 when scientists after 6 years of hard work claimed to finally be able to see Majorana fermions, needed for a topological computer, pursued by Microsoft. It was all around in the news.

However, the paper became controversial not just because no other group in the world managed to reproduce their claims, but because their data analysis started being questioned. …


Red and green LEDs already existed for a few decades when the efficient blue LED was invented in 1989.

Blue LEDs

For the discovery of a bright blue LED engineer Shuji Nakamura and physicists Hiroshi Amano and Isamu Akasaki were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014.

Strong blue LEDs led to the development of some new technologies based only on blue LEDs. More importantly, blue LED completed the RGB spectrum, allowing for the production of visible full-color LED screens and white LEDs. The Nobel prize was presented with a statement:

Incandescent light bulbs lit the 20th century; the 21st century will be lit by LED lamps.

But what was so special about the blue LED that its discovery deserved…


Discovered over 100 years ago, why are they still not good enough?

Electrical resistivity as a function of temperature for an ordinary conductor and a superconductor

For a material to be used efficiently as a conductor, low resistivity is needed. Metallic electrical conductors, such as copper, are used everywhere, from being molded into wires to being etched onto circuit boards. But the conductors used in today’s electric and electronic devices still have finite resistivity, so there are always losses due to heating. The overall losses in the transmission of electricity are between 8 and 15%.

Still, more than 100 years have passed since a much more intriguing type of conductors was discovered — superconductors, materials that exhibit no resistance to the flow of electrical current. …

Anna Ned

Doing physics.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store